Karl Lepsius

Karl Lepsius (1810-1884), founder of the German school of Egyptology. In 1837 Lepsius published an article about the hieroglyphic alphabet, in which he outlined the essence of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and published the first collection of ancient Egyptian texts.

Karl Lepsius (1810-1884), founder of the German school of Egyptology

In 1842, the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm 4 sent Karl Lepsius expedition led the University of Berlin on the banks of the Nile. It consisted of eight people and was designed for three years - from 1843 to 1845. The expedition was to explore the pyramid and strengthen on the pyramid of Cheops written characters plaque with his name and all his titles.

Karl Lepsius visited all the main archaeological centers of Egypt and attained Nubia. Six months of the expedition held in Memphis, and seven - in Thebes. Lepsius for the first time measured the Valley of the Kings, took copies of wall reliefs, and countless inscriptions in temples. He visited in Giza and he strengthened on the pyramid of Khufu-Cheops nameplate and titles of King Frederick William and iron cross. German expedition was also involved in the survey poorly known pyramids at Abusir, Sakkara and Medum. However, particularly careful excavations conducted Karl Lepsius in the area of the famous maze in the Fayum oasis.

Karl Lepsius discovered numerous monuments of the Old Kingdom era (2900-2270 BC). In the vicinity of Memphis Lepsius examined and described the 64 pyramids, in which found the remains of more than thirty unknown the pyramids.

Lepsius, carefully, with German punctuality has studied more than 70 Egyptian pyramids, more than anyone else before him, and succeeded in guessing riddles associated with these outstanding buildings. He identified the names of several Pharaohs - "owners" of the pyramids and the reign of each of them, he found out that the pyramids were built in the era of the Old and Middle Kingdoms but in the area of the New Kingdom has not been built. In addition, Karl Lepsius discovered a new, previously unknown, type of tombs - the so-called Mastaba - and investigated a total of 130 such tombs. He was the first who outlined the stages of evolution of the pyramid of the ancient form of the royal tomb with a flat roof to the tomb with a stepped superstructure, and from it - to the tomb in the form of regular pyramid.

In 1866, during his second voyage to Egypt, among the ruins of the city of San (Tanis), located in the Nile Delta, Karl Lepsius found the second (after the Rosetta) stone with trilingual inscription. It was carved so-called Decree of Canopus, relating to 239 BC Egyptian priests created it in the Egyptian city of Canopus in honor of the king Ptolemy Euergetes.