The golden age of archeology

The development of civilization never goes evenly and rectilinearly. There are always ups and downs, successes and failures. The same properties are owned by each of the sciences, where you can also identify your golden age. The golden age of archeology is rightfully due to the 19th century.

The golden age of archeology is rightfully due to the 19th century

Let's start from the German scientist Karl Lepsius, who discovered outstanding monuments the past in ancient Egypt. Only near the city Memphis he opened 67 pyramids of pharaohs and about 130 tombs notable nobles and officials. "Monuments of Egypt and Ethiopia" - the so-called fundamental work of Karl Lepsius, consisting of twelve volumes and is the result of his research.

But it turned out that this was only the beginning of the golden age of archeology. In the same 19 century, scientists open a huge Alley of sphinxes, which led to the burial place of the sacred bulls Apis. 64 tombs of these bulls were discovered, tens of thousands of hieroglyphic inscriptions were found, funeral implements and mummies of the great pharaohs, whose deeds can be read in ancient texts. Also in this century, the capital of the pharaoh-apostate of Akhenaten, who replaced the worship of the gods with the worship of the Sun, was discovered. For which he was cursed by the priests.

In parallel with the discoveries in Egypt, another civilization of the Ancient World was discovered, which existed in the valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates

In parallel with the discoveries in Egypt, another civilization of the Ancient World was discovered, which existed in the valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates. "Blood City" - Assyrian Nineveh and the "mother of cities" - the great Babylon, about which so much is said in the Bible, also saw light in this century. After them, excavations of other ancient cities of the Mesopotamia, built by the Sumerians - Ur, Uruk, Nippur, begin Lagash. In the west and north of them were found the cities of hittites, which vied as with the Egyptians, and with the inhabitants of Mesopotamia. And on the eve of 1870, British archaeologists have found traces of one of the legendary the wonders of the world - the temple of Artemis of Ephesus, built in Asia Minor twenty five centuries ago. And right after this discovery followed the opening of another miracle of the world - the tomb of the Cyrian king Mausoleum, on behalf of which the word "mausoleum" occurs.

On the island of Crete Arthur Evans during the excavations makes striking discoveries and shows that here, in Crete, there was a powerful original civilization. And even the dubious discoveries of Aegean culture H. Schliemann were also made in the golden age of archeology.

But in other parts of the world, archaeologists are also active. In the mid-19th century, Frenchman Muo, traveling through Cambodia, unexpectedly opens in the jungle a majestic city with a temple, created by an unknown master whose genius is comparable to the best masters of the Renaissance. Of course, this is also Angkor Wat - an architectural and sculptural complex, which today is the pride of Cambodia. In the expanses of the Russian Empire, a talented scientist Ivan Yegorievich Zabelin is actively working, digging out mounds Scythian leaders. In 1862-1863 in the barrow Chertomlyk he managed to find the remains of the Scythian king, his wife, six slaves, eleven horses, many gold items, a silver vessel for wine with various images.

But in other parts of the world, archaeologists are also active. In the mid-19th century, Frenchman Muo

In South Africa, in the last quarter of a century, Great Zimbabwe - a huge structure, similar to a knight's castle, and an equally majestic oval structure. It's hard to imagine, but about a hundred thousand tons of stone was used to build the wall that protected it!

Approximately at the same time, the Spanish archaeologist Southuola opens an incredible painting of Stone Age people on the walls of the Altamir cave. Scientists immediately were skeptical about the discovery - could an ancient person paint like that? But at the end of the 19th century new discoveries confirmed the hypothesis of Southuola - already 150-200 thousand years ago there were brilliant artists among people.

In 1839-1842, an American traveler and diplomat, John Lloyd Stevens, found the ruins of ancient cities maya in the jungles of South Mexico and Guatemala. Beautiful records of Stevens finds, clear drawings of his companion Frederick Catherwood showed that not only the Old World, but America has many archaeological mysteries. The finds of Stevens and Catherwood raised a storm of emotions in the scientific community. And in the remote places of the New World went to many travelers, researchers and even just adventurers.

So archeology as a science also had its golden age. It was the 19th century. And what's next? The 20th century, due to the development of technology, also brought many fundamental discoveries in archeology. But let's talk about this in another article.

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