Dark matter

In the last century astronomers found indications that at least 90% by weight of the universe does not emit light. It is dark matter. It is considered to be the gravitational glue that makes the stars of galaxies scatter in different directions. Perhaps dark matter determines the fate of the universe...

Perhaps dark matter determines the fate of the universe...

It should be noted that the dark matter in astronomy and cosmology - a hypothetical form of matter that does not emit electromagnetic radiation and does not interact with it. This feature of this form of matter makes it impossible to direct observation.

In 1933, while studying the motion of galaxies in large clusters of galaxies in the constellation Coma Berenices, the astronomer Fritz Zwicky discovered that some galaxies are moving at an unusually high speed. In this case according to the laws of physics it appeared that all the visible stars and gas in the cluster have not been able to provide a link between the galaxies, so they are not scattered in different directions. And yet, nothing happens with the accumulation, it remains unchanged. Zwicky concluded that in the constellation Coma Berenices there may be some kind of invisible dark matter, makes up for the lack of gravity. And in order to provide sufficient gravitational effect on the stars that are visible on the outskirts of the galaxy, dark matter must exceed the visible mass of at least 100 times.

Cosmologists repeat that dark matter could explain the central mystery of the universe: how did the current "lumpy" structure of the universe, consisting of clusters of galaxies and superclusters.

Although since the birth of the universe has passed about 15 billion years old, this is not enough time to visible matter alone merged into giant cosmic structures we see today.

Scientists have hypothesized that in the universe there is a special dark matter, cold dark matter, which moves slowly and is grouped faster than normal, visible matter. In consequence of the attraction of this substance ordinary matter forms stars and galaxies in the places where dark matter has the densest concentration. This theory explains why all the visible galaxies are inside the halo that forms their own dark matter.

Published in 2012, the study of motion of more than 400 stars, at distances up to 13000 light-years from the Sun, has not found evidence of the presence of dark matter in a large volume of space around the sun. According to the predictions of the theory, the average amount of dark matter in the solar neighborhood was to be about 0,5 kg in the volume of the globe. However, the importance of measuring given 0,00±0,06 kg of dark matter in this volume. This means that attempts to register the dark matter on Earth, for example, with "normal" matter are unlikely to be successful.

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