Ferns grow

Who did not dream to go to "Ivanov night" in the forest, where ferns grow and find a "break-grass" - a fiery flower of a fern. But the ferns do not have any flowers and they multiply by spores that grow on the underside of the leaves. Modern ferns - one of the few ancient plants that have preserved a significant variety, comparable to what was in the past. Ferns vary greatly in size, life forms, life cycles, structural features and other characteristics. Ferns do not yet have real leaves. But they made their first steps in their direction. What a leaf resembles a leaf is not a leaf, but by its nature a whole system of branches, and even those located in the same plane. So this is called - plane, or vayya. In the forests of the temperate zone, ferns usually have a short stalk, which is a rhizome in the soil. The conductive tissue is well developed in the stem, between the bundles of which the cells of the main parenchyma are located.

Who did not dream to go to Ivanov night in the forest, where ferns grow and find a break-grass - a fiery flower of a fern

There are no flowers at the fern, but there are ferns, in which spores are formed on separate parts of the leaf, perhaps similar to a brush of flowers or buds. We have very interesting small ferns of this kind: the groove (Votrychium) and the insecticide (Ophioglossum).

It turns out that the ferns of the botrychium, formerly considered more ordinary, actually are much less common in our country. It is incomparably less frequent than the small Botrychium lunaria that we have a larger Botrychium matricariae, otherwise called Botrychium rutaefolium (ruthenium gruzdovik). Not so rare, but still not often ferns of Botrychium matricariae can be found on peat bogs. If you observe a spore spike during the maturity of a spore, you can notice that sporangia, that is, those spherical boxes in which spores are formed, are opened in dry weather and closed in damp weather. The purpose of the device is clear: only in dry air dry spores can be carried by the wind. Observing sporangia in a magnifying glass, it's easy to see that it's only worth dying for an open sporangium, and it closes.

In the people, ferns of the botrychaum are called "key-grass". This "key-grass" in Eastern and Western Europe in ancient times enjoyed the special attention of healers and sorcerers; she was credited with various miraculous powers. On the other hand, the fiery flower of the fern, according to ancient legends, opened access to thawing in the ground clades, therefore, was considered a kind of "key" to the closed gold.

Presumably, the ferns could have been widely involved in the formation of fossil coals - with their burial of deposits and lack of access to oxygen. Impressions of ancient ferns are not uncommon in coal seams. Thus, ferns are included in the global organic circuit and, in particular, in the carbon cycle of the planet Earth.