The chemistry

The concept of "chemistry" ("hemiya") is remembered for the first time in the treatise Zosimusa. Zosimus was a Greek from city Panopolis (400 AD). In this treatise, Zosimus says that "Chemistry", or "sacred secret art" taught people the demons who came from heaven to earth. The book, which describes the "chemistry", was written by the prophet Chemes, on behalf of which originates "chemistry".

The concept of chemistry (hemiya) is remembered for the first time in the treatise Zosimusa

According to the historian of chemistry M. Berthelot, the name of chemistry comes from the word "chemie" or "hum", which the ancient Egyptians called their country, as well as the Nile humus. Therefore, "chemistry" - is "Egyptian art", which deals with different minerals, metals and other products of the earth's interior.

In ancient Egypt, the secret of "chemistry" was known only to the priests. They were all-powerful. Pharaohs were afraid even to them. Found a way a embalming corpses cause astonishment and delight. Priests possessed the secrets of the manufacture of cosmetics, medicines, as well as potent deadly poison, which they sacrificed their enemies.

In the 12th century BC in Egypt already manufactures and blurts out brick, from which built some pyramids. For the manufacture of colored glassware and ceramic widely used mineral paints - in most cases, iron oxide, copper, manganese and cobalt. For the protective coating patterns used of high-quality coatings of varnish. The Egyptians were able to extract mercury, smelting bronze, lead, tin, and later (1000 years BC) and iron.

In the secret laboratories of the temples of Osiris and Isis priests forged precious stones and gold. In addition, chemicals used by the Egyptian priests for the manufacture of similar gold alloys that do not contain gold.

Successfully developed chemistry and in Asia - Mesopotamia, India and China. Steelmakers ancient Babylon melted antimony and antimony bronze around 3000 BC.

In Alexandria, almost 1000 years there was a famous Alexandrian Academy. It had a large library. In the Academy study and work the Greeks, in most cases. So chemistry Egyptian priests became known walnut scientists and artisans.

In the seventh century, the wild nomadic Arab tribes as a result of numerous wars took possession of Alexandria. The fire destroyed the Academy Library. However, a number of Egyptian and walnuts books, which remained in the hands of the Arabs, have been deciphered and read. By the title "Chemistry" Arabs added common in their language the prefix "al". Since then, the "chemistry" was called "alchemy".

The alchemists of the Middle Ages spent a lot of effort to search for the two undercover substances. One of them - the "Philosopher's Stone" - could not only convert silver, mercury, lead and other metals into gold, and to heal all diseases and to continue the life of man, and maybe make him immortal. The second substance could transform base metals into silver only.

Ideas Arabs in Western Europe have found fertile ground. In the Middle Ages, and even later, almost all interested in chemistry - monks, beggars, princes and even the crowned heads. Everyone wanted to become rich...

Their treatises the alchemists wrote an incredibly difficult and confusing language where each word or phrase had a mysterious meaning. For hoax and deception alchemists often ended their lives in prison or on the gallows. Scientists have spent many years working to decipher the writings of clever alchemists, however, most of their works are still undeciphered today. There is no doubt that they have knowledge that are of value in our space age.