Interface buses

All components of a personal computer connected to each other through standard interface buses. Without knowledge of interface bus and their main characteristics is impossible to understand the principles of operation of the computer. There are the following computer interface buses:

All components of a personal computer connected to each other through standard interface buses

  1. ISA (Industrial Standard Architecture) 16-bit bus designed for connecting modems, network adapters, sound cards and other devices. The now obsolete and modern motherboards is not used;
  2. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect). Designed to connect sound cards, network cards, modems, and other devices. It works at a clock frequency of 33 MHz or 66 MHz. The data transfer rate 132 MB/s and 264 MB/s;
  3. PCI Express. An extended version of the PCI bus, presented in 2002. Unlike PCI parallel bus, PCI Express bus is a high-speed bus. Each link on the PCI Express is performed sequentially on two pairs of wires that provide a capacity of 2.5 Gb/s in each direction. You can combine up to 32 channels, creating a parallel interface with independent control of serial communication. PCI Express bus is software compatible with PCI bus, although the slots and sockets are different;
  4. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port). The bus is only used for connecting video cards. AGP 1,0 standard first developed by Intel in 1996. This specification corresponds to the clock frequency of 66.66 MHz, the multiplication mode 1x and 2x, and the voltage of 3,3 V. The next version of the AGP 2,0, appeared in 1998 and had 4 modes of multiplication, and the operating voltage of 1,5 V. The main (base) AGP regime considered the multiplication mode 1x. In this mode, a single data transfer takes place for each cycle. In the transmission mode 2 occurs two times per cycle, in a mode 4 four times per cycle, to 8x mode 8 times per cycle. The width of the bus AGP 1,0 32 bits. The maximum AGP bandwidth depends on the multiplication factor and is 533 MB/s (2), 1066 MB/s (4x), 2112 MB/s (8x);
  5. USB (Universal Serial Bus) for connecting digital and Web-based camera, scanner, printer, keyboard, mouse, and a variety of other devices;
  6. IEEE 1394 the tire to connect digital video cameras, audio devices, hard disks, etc.