The sapphire

In the old days in Israel lived a wise king Solomon. He had one very special ring among its rings. It is decorated with a large transparent gemstone blue sapphire.

Sapphire is a variety of corundum, so it is very durable

The sapphire is a variety of corundum, so it is very durable. Stone is characterized by high hardness (Mohs 9), and a high gloss. The refractive index of light 1,762-1,778. The melting point of 20400 C. Blue sapphire is caused by impurities of iron and titanium in the matrix Al2O3. According to one version, the word "sapphire" is derived from the Babylonian "SIPRI" - "scarring", which is quite likely, given the hardness of the stone. Another hypothesis states that the term "sapphire" is derived from the Greek word "sapfeiros" i.e., "beloved of Saturn".

The ancient inhabitants of the South-East Asia are often found grayish opaque stones, characterized by exceptional hardness. These stones are called "corundum". It went the sound from the Indian "kauruntaki" and the Sanskrit "kuruvinda" - later transformed into the modern mineralogy in the well-known form"corundum". However, the ancient Jews and Greeks are so called not modern sapphire but lapis lazuli.

The blue color of sapphires is caused by impurities of iron and titanium. There are, however, yellow, green, purple and even pink color. The vast majority of gem-quality sapphires supply on the world market, India and Australia. It should be borne in mind that natural clear crystals are rare. Not surprisingly, in the case of large flawless one carat stone costs can be more than $4000.

Sapphire advised to wear those born under the sign of Sagittarius.

In ancient Egypt, jewelry with sapphires, on which was inscribed a symbol of truth, worn on the chest only the high priests. In ancient Greece and ancient Rome sapphire devoted Zeus or, respectively, Jupiter. In India, it was considered a stumbling closely connected with the cosmos.

The most famous sapphire deposits are located in the USA, Australia, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand and China.