# Systematic approach

We often hear that a systematic approach is needed to perform a task. But, what is this in terms of mathematics? First, let's look at some examples of using the systematic approach.

What the weather will be tomorrow? To answer this question, thousands of people work and even more devices. The information of local weather stations, sometimes located in the most remote corners of the country, first goes to the regional meteorological centers, and then only to the highest level - to the central meteorological center. It's hard to imagine how you can separate the train from the railway stations and the system of steel mains, and a modern car is inconceivable without a system of gas stations and maintenance points. Even in the construction of a residential house, a systematic approach is important: to ensure that plumbers bring their pipes to the house in advance, they do not pick up the already planned and asphalted territory after the trenches, and the electricians would not start installing hidden wiring after the plasterers worked in the apartment...

What is the basis for a systematic approach to the problem? First of all, on the following principles.

The principle of maximizing mathematical expectation orders the greatest efficiency, usefulness of systems. The system with the most efficiency should work in the usual, or, as they say, regular mode. To do this in each particular case is quite difficult, but just in finding such solutions, the art of a good specialist is.

The principle of phenomena with low probability in the system approach asserts that the main task of the system should not be revised, and its main characteristics change in order for the system to be suitable for work in situations having a low probability of occurrence. In other words, this means that there is no need to fence a garden with a giraffe. It is enough to make a fence against goats. If the giraffe shows up, it's easier to drive it out of the garden by hand, with a stick.

Centralization in the system of leadership and decision-making. Everyone understands that if in a company each soldier begins to take and execute his own decisions, not obeying the commander's orders, it will not be a company, but a crowd.

The principle of suboptimization of the systematic approach says that independent optimization of each of the subsystems entering into a large system generally does not lead to optimality of systems as a whole. That is, it means that the improvement of one part can lead even to the deterioration of the entire system as a whole. It's not as wild as it might seem at first. Judge for yourself, will the ceiling of the house be overfulfilled by 130% if the over-fulfillment is achieved on walls that have not been plastered yet?..

Four of these principles of the systematic approach - the vital bread system engineering. In addition, system engineers have to know many other things - information about the oceans, land properties, the problems of large cities, reference materials on astronomy, space, computers, radar, infrared technology, all kinds of aerodynamic systems, and so on.