The accumulator

The accumulator should be good to carry the charging process. This was achieved in the mid-19th century.

The accumulator should be good to carry the charging process

In 1859, french scientist and engineer Gaston Plante built an accumulator. He took the two lead plates as electrodes, coated with a film of lead oxide. The accumulator filled dilute sulfuric acid. Plante connected to the electrodes of the constant current source, and some time passed a current through your accumulator. Plante accumulator itself has become to produce electric current, and thus singled out almost all the energy spent on charging. Charging can be repeated a large number of times the accumulator always worked fine.

How to store energy Plante accumulator? When a current is passed through the electrolyte of sulfuric acid at a lead plate connected to the negative pole of the power source the cathode, hydrogen is released, which restores the lead oxide in pure lead. On the electrode connected to the positive terminal anode, oxygen is liberated, which oxidizes the lead oxide to peroxide. The accumulator is fully charged, the cathode will be entirely pure lead, and the anode peroxide of lead. Then it would be the highest voltage between the electrodes.

Connecting the electrodes to the load, we will discharge the accumulator. The current direction when discharging the opposite of what it was when charging. Positively charged plate will recover hydrogen and negative oxidized by oxygen. Once the plate will become the same, the accumulator stops giving current. It is necessary to recharge the accumulator.

The energy of the accumulator accumulates in the form of lead, which is converted to the release of energy in the lead peroxide. This accumulator is referred to as electrochemical.

Lead-acid accumulators are economical, but they often deteriorate and short-lived. In addition, the lead - a relatively rare and expensive metal, and the acid is dangerous to handle. Of course, that scientists began to look for new materials and new principles of accumulator life. So there was the second major type of electrochemical accumulator alkaline.

In some communications satellites and space stations, used a third type of accumulators silver-zinc alkaline. This accumulator is not afraid of high currents or low temperatures (down to -60 0C).