What is a leiden bank?

How to accumulate a charge, for example, electrons? This question has been relevant at all times. And helped to solve it, the so-called Leiden bank. But let's not run ahead, but consider everything in order.

How to accumulate a charge, for example, electrons? This question has been relevant at all times. And helped to solve it, the so-called Leiden bank

The famous physicist Benjamin Franklin believed that when electrifying some kind of liquid - "fluid" flows from one body to another. At the end of the 19th century, scientists discovered that there is no liquid here, but there are particles charged with an electric charge, and the smallest of them was called an electron and a negative charge less than that of an electron, it turns out, cannot be. If electrons are taken away from an atom of a substance, then this atom will charge positively; if you pass the extra - it is negative. When amber is rubbing against wool, for example, electrons pass from wool to amber, it charges negatively, and wool positively; when rubbing glass with silk, the opposite happens: the glass is charged positively, and silk is negatively charged. Little by little, the rubbing process was mechanized, and scientists created electrical machines. Now almost every school has such an electric, or, more correctly, an electrophore, machine with a glass disc.

But when they tried to electrify water in a glass flask in the laboratory of the Dutch city of Leiden, thus obtaining the first condenser in history, the spark turned out to be so powerful that the experimenter a student named Kaneus was nearly killed by it. Subsequently, scientists von Kleist and Mushenbruck gave a modern look to the condenser by performing a flask with foil liners from inside and outside. Thus, the famous Leyden Bank was opened, with which mysterious experiences quickly gained popularity in scientific and even aristocratic circles.

Frenchman Jean Nollet in the presence of King Louis XV showed a funny experiment. Two hundred of the king's court agreed to let the charge of the Leyden jar through. And a long chain of brilliant gentlemen holding hands and ladies jumped up with a squeal. When laughter and enthusiasm for the experience subsided, Nollet demonstrated the deadly power of electricity. The same electrical charge was fired through the body of the sparrow, and then the mice they were instantly killed by a spark!

Even the monks, and they conducted experiments with the Leyden jar. A grandiose experience is known when 700 monks from Paris, holding hands together in a chain, conducted an experiment of Kaneus, passing a current from the Leyden jar through themselves. The electric discharge was so strong that all 700 people, cramped together, screamed at once.

Now very few people use Leyden banks, they survived only on school electrophore machines. Modern capacitive capacitors, capable of accumulating a large number of electrons, are made of aluminum foil coated with a very thin film of aluminum oxide. This film, like the glass in a Leyden jar, separates the electrodes an aluminum film and a special electrolyte (liquid). The thinner the film, the larger the capacitor, but the sooner it can be pierced by a spark.

Electrolytic capacitors, the real "Leiden banks" for electrons, are found in many electronic devices, such as televisions. Sometimes they break through a spark, and then their entire charge instantly turns into heat. In modern molecular capacitors, it is not the size that increases, but the electrical capacity, which is more profitable. On such capacitors as energy storage devices, an electric car can travel hundreds of meters. But still, the capacitor basically cannot accumulate large amounts of energy. The best capacitors are hundreds of times less energy-intensive than, for example, flywheels or electric batteries.