What is extraction?

Extraction is a chemical process that is very common in industry. It is used in the chemical, oil refining, food, metallurgical, pharmaceutical and other industries. Scientifically, extraction refers to a method of extracting a substance from a solution or a dry mixture using a suitable solvent (extractant). Liquid extraction involves the transfer of one (or more) soluble substances contained in the feed solution to another immiscible liquid (extractant). The extractant enriched with soluble substances is called an extract. The rest of the original solution without soluble substances is called raffinate. Let's take a closer look at the extraction, which you can do yourself.

Extraction is a chemical process that is very common in industry

Crush a few kernels of a nut and a handful of sunflower seeds (without husk), put in a test tube and fill with gasoline. There should be no fire nearby! Shake the tube and let it sit for two hours, not forgetting to shake it from time to time. Then drain the solution on a saucer and expose to draft. When the gasoline has evaporated, you will see some oil on the bottom. So with the help of gasoline you extracted, extracted, the oil from the seeds. Extraction occurred due to the fact that the oil is highly soluble in gasoline. Just do not try to taste the butter!

Another experiment in studying the extraction process can be done with leaves. It will require a water bath and a glass with thin walls (if they are thick, the glass, as you remember, can burst). Place a fresh leaf of a plant in a jar, and pour a small amount of diluted alcohol. Heat the water in the bath, remove it from the heat and place a glass with a leaf inside. Some time later, with a pair of tweezers, remove the piece: it has become discolored, and the alcohol has become emerald in color. This is how you extracted chlorophyll, the green pigment of plants. In this way, you can extract food coloring to tint the cream or sauce from edible plants - lettuce or spinach. This is what they do in food factories: the green edible dye is extracted by extracting from the leaves. To speed up this process, we advise you first chop the leaves and shake the vessel from time to time.

Another extraction experience. In a test tube, half filled with water, pour about 1 ml of pharmacy iodine tincture; get a brownish solution. Add an equal amount of gasoline to it, shake it several times and leave it alone. When the mixture exfoliates, it turns out that the upper, petrol layer has become dark brown, and the lower, aqueous layer is almost colorless. Iodine dissolves poorly in water, but it is good in gasoline. That is why he moved from a water solution to a gasoline one.

The difference in solubility is based on our latest experience with extraction. How to quickly distinguish coffee powder from chicory powder? By smell, this is understandable, but if the smell is weak or you do not remember it exactly? Then throw a pinch of this and other powder in a transparent vessel with hot water. Painted chicory substances are difficult to extract with water, so it will remain almost colorless. Coffee, on the other hand, dissolves easily in water, and its powder slowly sinks to the bottom, leaving behind a brown trail.