Kerosene

Kerosene is a combustible mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (from C8 to C15) with a boiling point in the range 150-2500 C, transparent, colorless (or slightly yellowish), slightly oily to the touch. The very interpretation of the word "kerosene" is already curious. In the Russian Encyclopedia (vol. 10, p. 42), published in Petersburg by the book association "Actor", it is said: "Kerosene... is put on sale by the trading house "Carr and Son", hence the name". However, in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia we read: "Kerosene (English kerosene, from Greek keros - wax)". The possibility of separating a light liquid from kerosene from oil by distillation was reported by the St. Petersburg doctor I.Ya. Lerhe, who was on a business trip to Baku in 1732-35. And the first kerosene production was set up by F. Pryadanov in 1745 on the Ukhta oil field. However, at that time this fishery was of no practical value.

Kerosene is a combustible mixture of liquid hydrocarbons

A new period in the history of kerosene began when Russian craftsmen created an oil refinery. Even then, when scientists in Europe looked at oil as a material suitable only for wheel coating, in the North Caucasus they worked "to convert black oil to white", that is, to distill oil and produce products that are more suitable for lighting than raw materials oil. Peasants Countess Panina Vasily Dubinin and his brothers invented a distillery. In 1823, they built the world's first refinery with practical importance. But their most important invention, without any support, soon died down.

Kerosene appeared only when kerosene lamps appeared. In Russia, industrial production of kerosene was started in 1859 at a large plant, founded by V.A. Kokorev in Surakhani. In the 19th century, only kerosene (for lighting) was used from oil distillation products, and the resulting gasoline and other petroleum products had extremely limited application. For example, gasoline was used for pharmacological and veterinary purposes, and also as a household solvent, and therefore large oil reserves were simply burned in pits or poured into reservoirs. In 1911, kerosene lost its leading position in the world market of petroleum products due to the spread of internal combustion engines and electric lighting. Again, the value of kerosene began to increase only since the 1950s, in view of the development of jet and turboprop aviation, for which this type of petroleum products (aviation kerosene) turned out to be almost ideal fuel. Nowadays, kerosene is used as a fuel for household, heating and lighting appliances. Technical kerosene is used as a raw material for the pyrolytic production of ethylene, propylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, as a fuel mainly in the firing of glass and porcelain products, as a solvent when washing machines and parts.

Tools