Inks for writing

You will not believe it, but all the well-known ink for the letter will be obtained if you take a little oak, alder and ash tree bark, boil them in water, add berries of hardness, and then throw a piece of iron and pour the soup porridge and a mug of kvass honey!

It was such ink for writing on acidic schachas

It was such ink for writing on "acidic schachas" - they were called "cooked" yet - used in Russia in the 15th century. The most ancient in Russia ink for writing - smoked - from soot and gum (cherry glue). Thick and sticky, they dug into thick sheets of chronicles and only got stronger from time to time.

In the 16th century another "sweet" recipe of ink became known: from ink nuts (outgrowths on the leaves of oak), cherry glue, to which were added four scorpions (measures) of "sparse honeyed honey" and a little "drunk of intoxicates". If you take it on your tongue and seem sweet, then it's ready!

Perhaps, only the oldest recipe - smoked ink - is immediately understandable. In it everything is clear: soot - for blackness, and glue - for bonding. And with two other ways so many puzzles! Why iron, soup, copper? Modern chemistry was able to explain this strange choice of components.

Oak bark, alder, ash trees were taken because they are rich in tannins, which, when thickened, can darken and stain solutions of salts of iron oxide (that's why a piece of iron!) In black or blue. To strengthen the dark color, added tartar berries. In the second recipe, instead of bark, ink nuts were used - they contain much more tannic substances. And in the cabbage soup, and in kvass, and also in vinegar, fermented wine, barley beer, which was also introduced by some authors of ink, contains acids that are needed for the reaction: ink for writing was born within two to three weeks!

And why is the ink for writing so called? Because in the beginning they were only black. Colored ink appeared later. For example, red ink for writing was made most often from the fernambukovoy tree, boiled together with acid.

The blue ink for writing was obtained on the basis of indigo-cube paint, which was extracted from many tropical plants. They poured water, allowed to wander, then poured liquid. Indigo was precipitated with a white precipitate, which in the air immediately oxidized and chenille.

In 1900, humanity invented a fountain pen, and old viscous ink for writing was no longer suitable for it. The inventors decided to go two ways - to create ink for writing on the basis of alcohol or acetone, or to find a new paper that was able to quickly absorb ink. But alcohol and acetone dried equally fast on paper and on the tip of the pen, and paper with such properties was very expensive.

And if you use alkali? Alkaline ink for writing would have to both dry quickly, and even resist moisture! This, unfortunately, was not justified.

The inventors realized that it was necessary to search for new ink for writing among the dyes. Of a few thousand, half a dozen were found, which were used in alkaline inks.

It turned out that if alkalinity is imparted to the ink with a caustic soda, then by absorbing the carbon dioxide of the air, it will give soda - the crystals will literally clog it with a feather splitting. To avoid this, add wetting agents to the ink, which block access to carbon dioxide.

It's amazing! Mankind wrote its history with ink, knowing almost nothing about them, and learned almost everything when there were ballpoint pens, ink for writing which are quick-drying, are not afraid of drops of water, light and air, and hence, after many years the lines they have written will the beads are also bright.