The gold

In the history of mankind the gold played a huge role. None of the metal did not excite so many passions, did not inflame so many desires and readiness to go to the most difficult deprivations in the hope of "golden mountains", like gold. They tried to get hold of at least by crimes, violence and wars. But man has taken possession of only a part of this natural wealth, which is insignificant in comparison with the amount dispersed in nature. After all, gold, according to the scientists' just view, can be called ubiquitous. It is widely dispersed in the most diverse areas of nature; in the sea water one hundredth milligram of gold falls on a cubic meter water. And there are up to ten thousand tons in the oceans. Gold can be found in any granite fragment, and its average content in the earth's crust is 0,000001 percent. The total amount of this metal in the earth to a depth of one kilometer is not less than five billion tons.

In the history of mankind the gold played a huge role

The charge number 79 of gold makes it one of the highest in number of protons elements that occur in nature. Previously it was assumed that it was formed during nucleosynthesis of super new stars, but the new theory suggests that gold and other elements are heavier iron were formed as a result of the destruction of neutron stars. According to this theory, as a result of the explosion of a neutron star, the dust containing metals (including heavy metals, for example, gold) is thrown out into outer space, in which it subsequently condenses, both in the solar system and on Earth. Since the Earth was in a molten state, when it was just created, almost all the gold currently on Earth is in the core. The majority that today is present in the earth's crust and mantle was brought to Earth asteroids during the late heavy bombardment.

The content of gold in the earth's crust is very low 4,3*10-10% by mass, but deposits and areas that are dramatically enriched with metals are very numerous. Gold is contained in the water. One liter of both sea and river water contains less than 5*10-9 grams of Au, which roughly corresponds to 5 kilograms of Au in 1 cubic kilometer of water.

For gold is characteristic of a native form. Among its other forms, it is worth noting electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, which has a greenish tint and is relatively easy to break when carried by water. In rocks it is usually scattered at the atomic level. In the deposits it is often enclosed in sulphides and arsenides.

It turns out that nature not only gives the person gold, but also takes it away. It has an exceptional ability to spray, give particles commensurate with the length of the light wave, carried away in kilograms in the form of the smallest dust in rivers, scattered throughout the floor, walls and furniture of gold-smelting laboratories. From gold, you can get the finest leaves that shine through the green light, the thickness of which is so small that only fifty or even one hundred thousand of these leaves form a platelet in one millimeter in thickness.

In 1745, Dorofei Markov, while searching for crystal for the icons of the Trinity Lavra, opened the first reliable deposit of gold at Urals, and by 1916 official statistics have already registered total production, since 1745 - 172 thousand poods (almost 3000 tons).

But here is gold found. We need to start to develop it. Most placer deposits are developed using dredges. Draga is a powerful dredger mounted on a pontoon. She produces a breed, flushes and extracts gold from it. Dredges work without a break all year round, mining metal even in winter conditions. After that, the extracted rock can be fed to concentrating and gold recovery factories and plants.