Dimension space

It is useful to dwell in more detail on Wells' peculiar understanding of the time, as the fourth dimension space. To understand this, we will move mentally from the familiar three dimensions space into the world of two dimensions. Such a two-dimensional space, having a length and width, but not at all having a thickness, is a plane. Let us imagine to ourselves that the whole space is flattened into one plane and that intelligent beings dwell in it, of course, also two-dimensional. For two-dimensional inhabitants there are only two-dimensional things. Any line crossing their flat world must be represented to them in the form of a point, since they can only perceive from one line only one point-exactly the one in which this line meets the plane. Two-dimensional beings could explore the entire line only if their flat world moved in the third dimension, for example, along a perpendicular direction. Let's put this space in such a motion. Watching then how the position of the point of meeting the line with their plane changes, two-dimensional thinkers could make themselves some notion of the entire three-dimensional line.

It is useful to dwell in more detail on Wells' peculiar understanding of the time, as the fourth dimension space

But, of course, they could not so clearly, as we imagine, what position this line occupies in the three-dimensional measurement space: all three-dimensional does not fit into the consciousness of a two-dimensional being. A two-dimensional thinker would have expressed this in other words: he would say that the point he is researching changes his position in "time." What for us is a movement of a two-dimensional dimension of space (plane) in three-dimensional space, then for an inhabitant of two-dimensional space it would be represented as "the flow of time". What exists for us simultaneously in the space of three dimensions - for them appears successively in the space of two dimensions.

Let us consider another example. Two-dimensional space - (a plane), moving in the three-dimensional dimension of space, came across a body in the form of a double cone. A 2D inhabitant of a plane, of course, can not perceive this cone as a body; can not even imagine it. What will he see and think when his space encounters a similar three-dimensional body, and it passes through a flat world? Let's follow this. First, a point will appear in the two-dimensional one - the vertex of the cone. Then, as the flat space moves further towards the third dimension (that is, "in the course of time," as a two-dimensional thinker would say), the point will turn into a small circle or ellipse-the section of the cone by the plane of a two-dimensional world. The circle will grow, expand and, having reached the largest size, will shrink, gradually turn into a point and again disappear. The two-dimensional researcher observed the history of the origin, development, withering and disappearance of the "circle", whereas we, the beings of the world of three-dimensional measurement, perceive the same thing at once, simultaneously in the form of three dimensions of space.

For the inhabitant of the two-dimensional measurement of space, the cone existed in a chain of successively perceived plane sections, for us - entirely as a three-dimensional body. The motion of the plane in the third dimension of the familiar is experienced by a two-dimensional being, like the flow of time. For him, the "past" cone is that part of it that lies on one side of its flat world (along the plane from which it moves); the "future" of the cone is those parts that are located on the other side, and the "present" is the intersection of the cone with the two-dimensional space.

We now apply the same arguments to the world of three-dimensional measurement of space. When we describe the history of the change of some thing in our three-dimensional space, do we not give consistent images of this thing in time? If so, then we can consider time as the fourth dimension of space, the dimension in which our three-dimensional space moves; every phenomenon observed in three-dimensional space is one of the successive "intersections" of our three-dimensional world with a four-dimensional thing. The essence of the four dimensions of space could immediately cover the entire history of the thing, its entire "life" in the form of a four-dimensional object that is inaccessible to our imagination.