The planetarium in Moscow was opened in 1929, just 11 years after the appearance of the world's first planetarium. The idea of creating a large-scale operating model of the solar system arose at the head of the German Museum in Munich O. Muller. By his order, the famous optical company Karl Zeiss Jena in 1918 built the so-called Copernican planetarium. Designed by F. Mayer and O. Muller, it was a cylindrical room with a diameter of 12 and a height of 3 meters, in the center of which was hung a large glowing Sun-ball, around it circled orbits illuminated by the planet balls.

The Planetarium in Moscow was opened in 1929, just 11 years after the appearance of the world's first planetarium

The Copernican Planetarium was distinguished by the fact that the audience turned around the Sun on a mobile platform that mimicked the planet Earth. In the course of working on this project, the firm born the idea of the Ptolemaic planetarium, creating a complete illusion of the starry sky visible from a certain point on the earth's surface.

The original Ptolemaic planetarium was represented in the form of a five-meter hollow metal sphere. The holes in its walls had to imitate the stars. On the outside, the sphere was illuminated, and the spectators who were inside saw the fixed stars. Visible to the naked eye of the planet, as well as the Moon and the Sun projected onto the inner surface of the dome. The sphere itself was to rotate evenly, imitating the Earth's daily rotation. However, it was difficult to create such a planetarium: the electric drive for rotating a huge and massive dome turned out to be excessively powerful and noisy.

The first Ptolemaic planetarium, designed by A. Pulz and F. Pfau, was first shown at the Munich German Museum in 1923. In this planetarium, the motion of the planets, the Sun and the Moon was reproduced, as well as the location of the stars as they are seen in the breadth of Munich. Since that time, planetariums have also been built in other cities around the world.