Aquamarine - a common but not expensive greenish stone, is a variation of beryl, that is, it consists of the closest mineralogical relationship to the emerald, heliodor, sparrow. Under the name of the present or eastern aquamarine, also green and blue varieties of topaz go in trade.

Aquamarine is a common but not expensive greenish stone, is a variation of beryl, that is, it consists of the closest mineralogical relationship to the emerald, heliodor, sparrow

Fig. 1. Crowned aquamarines.

The beautiful name was given to aquamarine in 1604 by Boetiu de Booto from the Latin words "aqua" - water and "mare" - the sea. However, the impetus to the name was given by Pliny the Elder exact description of the stone: "most of all, those beryl that are very much like the pure green of sea waters are appreciated". The color of the stone is greenish-blue, sky-blue, blue. Stone is valued not only for color, but also for high hardness (7,5-8), and also for transparency. In nature it occurs in the form of hexahedral prismatic crystals, and large crystals occur relatively often. The largest aquamarine crystal weighing 110,5 kg was 48,5 cm long and 42 cm wide. It was found in 1910 at the Marambay mine in Minas Gerais, Brazil. From it received 220 thousand carats of cutting material. In Brazil, several large crystals have been found, some of them bearing personal names. "Marta Rocha" has a mass of 34 kg, "Jacqueto" - 18 kg. Other large crystals of aquamarine have a mass of 5 to 22 kg. The largest of the faceted Brazilian aquamarines weighing 2,594 carats belongs to one of the companies in the state of California (USA). Another famous large aquamarine belongs to the English royal family, it is inserted into one of the crowns and has a mass of 920 carats. At the World Exhibition in Paris, the French jeweler Froman-Meris exhibited a gem weighing 6,8 kg. The location of the aquamarine find was not accurately established, but it is known that the work was done by the Idar masters (Germany). From a single crystal of aquamarine, the scepter of the Polish King Stanislaw, 30 cm long (stored in the Armory of the Kremlin), was carved.

Aquamarine is popular with many people

Fig. 2. Aquamarines (the upper row is substandard, weight 639, 350, 595 g, at the bottom - faceted, in the foreground aquamarine of 695 carats).

Aquamarine was also found in Russia: in 1796 in the Eastern Transbaikalia with a mass of 82 kg; in 1843 in the Ilmensky Mountains on the Southern Urals (in area of the city of Miass) in size 20 x 19 cm. The largest Altai has a length of 61 cm and a diameter of 15 cm.

Aquamarine is popular with many people. It is not so rare as emerald, so on sale is almost always available, it is affordable, but no stone can be compared to beauty. For a long time people believed that it improves eyesight, cools passions and protects family happiness. Later, since he began to be called aquamarine, he fell in love with sailors and became their favorite talisman. It was believed that aquamarine calms sea storms, provides the owner with safety in sea voyages and victory in battles at sea. A secular etiquette assumed that the gift of such a stone means hope and brings good luck in all endeavors. He is also considered a talisman of true friendship, discretion and eloquence.

Recently, beautiful aquamarines are obtained artificially during roasting and subsequent irradiation of yellowish-green beryl.