Maya

The greatest civilization of America - the civilization Maya appeared, when in Europe the great Roman Empire gained strength and, having existed for more than a thousand years, having survived its flourishing in 6-8 centuries, this civilization fell.

The greatest civilization of America - the civilization Maya appeared, when in Europe the great Roman Empire gained strength and, having existed for more than a thousand years

Maya did not know metals, plow, wheeled carts, domestic animals, a potter's wheel, but fifteen centuries before Columbus invented an exact solar calendar, predicted solar and lunar eclipses, created the only developed hieroglyphic writing in America.

But then the strange thing happened. By the end of the 9th century, life in most of the cities either ceased altogether, or barely smoldered. For some 100 years, Maya, America's most populous and culturally cultured civilization, is declining.

This fact caused many interpretations. The fact that the Maya were expelled by foreign invaders seemed too simple. The state of Maya was in the prime of life, and none of the neighbors could even remotely compare with it in military power. Perhaps the decay of Maya was caused by a catastrophe? But where are the traces of this catastrophe that could force a whole people to leave their country?

Sylvanus Morley believes that the main cause of the decay of the Maya civilization was the depletion of soils: the Maya did not know the plow and used slash-and-burn agriculture, and as a result they turned their land into an arid steppe.

But, the inhabitants of these places still use slash-and-burn agriculture, and it is the most effective here; secondly, it is unlikely that the depletion of land on the entire vast and diverse in the natural conditions of the Maya region could cause the rapid death of their cities; thirdly, other methods of farming were widespread among the ancient Maya: in the mountain zones there are terraces, and on the plain, near rivers and lakes, irrigation canals.

New archaeological studies have shown numerous evidence that in the 8-9 centuries. Many Maya cities were captured by a group of foreigners connected by their culture with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Central Mexico. In such Maya cities as Palenque, Seibal, Iascilan, Tikal, Copan, and others were recorded a sudden and the mass appearance of cultural complexes devoid of local roots, but bearing the characteristic features of the Central Mexican cultures: pottery with an orange surface, fancy stone products known under the conventional names "yoke" and "ax" (these products serve as one of the most specific signs of civilization totonaki) and terracotta figurines, physical type, clothing, decorations and weapons of which are completely different from the Maya.

It is established that the Maya lands were subjected to invasions three times. The first wave of conquerors came from Teotihuacan - the capital of a powerful state, created at the turn of our era by the ancestors of the Nahua Indians. In the 7th century AD. Teotihuacan was destroyed as a result of the invasion of barbarian tribes from the north, and its population fled to the south. It was the people from the valley of Mexico City who were the first wave of aliens to land the Maya.

The second wave of invasion is associated with the tribes Pipil. At the end of the 8th century AD, when the Olmecs captured the city of Cholula, its inhabitants were forced to flee to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Here they were influenced by the Totonaki, and then, the Olmecs, driven by the Olmecs, the Pipil tribes moved to the southeast, in the Maya region. This was the wave of conquerors who brought with them orange ceramics, stone "yokes" and "axes".

The third wave of conquerors was the Toltecs, led by Topilzin Quetzalcoatl, who invaded the territory of Maya in the late 10th century and established their domination over Yucatan for several centuries.

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